Japanese beetle
Morphologically the Japanese beetle has a slight similarity with the Garden chafer. This species, which accidentely has been shipped from Asia to the USA in the early twenties, was expected to reach Europe by means of air transport. This species, which is one of the most harmful turfgrass insects in the USA, has not yet been recorded from Europe.

Dung beetleDung beetle (Aphodius spp.)
Grubs of dung beetles of the genus Aphodius are much smaller than the above mentioned species. Occasionally they play a role in turfgrasses. At the end of the seventies Aphodius contaminatus was claimed to damage the sod in turf-nurseries. They appeared to be attracted to the rabbit dung deposited on the field.
In the early spring of 1993 Aphodius contaminatus was recorded in high numbers, damaging pastures in the eastern provinces. Primary damage by the grubs was not found but secundary damage by predation of crows on the grubs was severe. In several places in the central part of the Netherlands Aphodius fossor has been recorded under similar conditions.
Grubs of Aphodius species have been regularly recorded from several golf courses in the Netherlands. In the American literature Aphodius species (a.o. Black Turfgrass Ataenius and Aphodius granarius) are recorded as a pest. They are attracted by high levels of organic matter in the soil profile (piles of decaying grass clippings and turf thatch). Primary damage usually is not very obvious but secundary damage by predation can be of local importance.

Copyright Insect Consultancy 2002